Why calories in, calories don't work
The 'carbohydrate insulin model (Kim)' says that when we eat high-glycemic carbohydrates, such as sugar and refined carbohydrates, this leads to changes in hormone insulin and therefore more hunger and lower energy consumption.
Long-term randomized controlled studies in humans support the 'carbohydrate insulin model (KIM)', while only animal research and short-term studies have been used to resist.
Insulin resistance can be the cause of the obesity epidemic, but the carbohydrate insulin model can - by recommending a carbohydrate diet - also help to tackle the epidemic of insulin resistance.
The 'carbohydrate insulin model' is slightly different because a "eat less, move more" approach did not work to tackle obesity.
What causes obesity?
Most people will tell you that it is a simple energy moniance. In other words, weight gain = calories in calories out.
At first glance this is completely logical. The laws of thermodynamics must apply to people.
Therefore, if we "less food" (calories in) and "more move" (calories out), we should be able to lose weight and retain a healthy body weight.
The problem is that although the energy balance model works in theory, it fails in practice. Society has spent the 'eating less without success for years, moving more' calorie-oriented approach to weight control.
"Eat less, move more" is insufficient advice to delay the rising trend of obesity.
To solve the obesity problem, we must think differently.
Hunger and too much food
First, the "Kim" notes that high-glycemic carbohydrates, by raising the insulin glucagon ratio, lowers fuels about 3 - 5 hours after a meal, which may lead to more hunger and eat too much.
A randomized controlled food study showed that a carbohydrate-rich diet insulin increased and energy availability in the bloodstream, including glucose, fatty acids and ketone bodies, reduced compared to a carbohydrate diet ( Shimy et al, 2020).
This is biologically logical, as insulin stimulates glucose uptake.
The practical side of this low energy profitability phenomenon is that diets with many carbohydrates can affect the ability of a person to maintain long-term weight loss by calorie restructuring.
In support of this option, data show that, after weight loss, carbohydrate-rich diets for weight conservation are associated with a 43-51% increased blood supply to the brain remuneration center compared to diets with higher fat content and low carbohydrates.
Other data also show that, even when carbohydrates are checked, the glycemic index controls the activation of the reward center in the brain, which actually says that not all sources of carbohydrates are equal in the Kim because higher glycemic carbohydrates increase insulin in larger peak .
Secondly, the KIM predicts that diets with many carbohydrates can reduce energy consumption as a means to maintain a higher weight.
This was investigated in the Framingham State Food Study, a randomized controlled study of 20 weeks in which persons who had lost were randomly assigned to 20% fat 60% carbohydrates (low fat content), 40% fat 40% carbohydrates or 60% fat 20% carbohydrates (Low carb) Weight conservation diets that were checked for protein and in which calories were adjusted to remain on weight.
The study showed that, from average 120 people, the carbohydrate group 278 calories needed more per day to remain on weight compared to the low-fat group (Ebeling et al, 2018, ebeling et al, 2020).
Thirdly, the KIM predicts that high insulin levels can influence the fuel distribution to fat, even if the calories are under control.
This has been demonstrated in rats where administration of insulin leads to grease increase, even if the calorie intake and activity are kept under control to prevent excessive weight gain (Torbay et al, 1985) And with rodents with a calorie diet with a lot of versus a low carbohydrate content ( Pawlak et al, 2004).
In short, the KIM model offers a new basis for solutions to tackle obesity.
It's something else.
And we need something else because the normal course of affairs did not work.